Electric Kilns Electric Kilns
the paragon fusion:cs glass kilns or larger kilns at paragonkilns.co.uk or making jewellery at kitiki.co.uk
                          
The Paragon Fusion CS14D
The French Flag The Italian Flag The Spanish Flag The Swedish Flag
Ceramic Block
Corfe Castle In Dorset
Cherry Heaven Shop In Corfe Castle
Ceramic-Fibre Cloth
Bullseye Kiln Paper
CR1 Professional Motor Base
CR2 Professional Motor Base
Large Rubber Drum 2000gm Open
Digital Pyrometer
Cherry Heaven Digital Alarm-Timer
The Dremel Engraver
The Dremel Engraver In Use
EU Plug
Fire Extinguisher
File Set
File Set
Glare-Resistant Glasses
Heat-Resistant Gloves
Cutters
Flush Cutters
Flat-Nose Pliers
Pointed-Nose Pliers
Bent-Nose Pliers
Round-Nose Pliers
Knife Set
Knife Set
Large Plastic Drum 700gm Closed
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Closed
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
MiniDrill
Digital Multimeter
Magnetic Polisher
Magnetic Polisher
Magnetic Polisher
Magnetic Polisher
3M HEPA Dust Mask
Mains Tester Screwdriver
Magnetic Polisher Pins
Magnetic Polisher Pins
Protective Safety Glasses
Ring Guage
Small Plastic Drum 700gm Closed
Scriber
Shot: Balls And Planetoids
Shot: Pins And Rods
Soldering Iron
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit
Small Plastic Drum 700gm Closed
Small Rubber Drum 510gm
Stainless Steel Containers
ST4 Professional Motor Base
ST7 Professional Motor Base
ST8 Professional Motor Base
SilverEtch on Art Clay By Larissa Johnson
SilverEtch on Polymer Clay By Larissa Johnson
South-West Of England
Rotary Tumbler Kit 1
Rotary Tumbler Kit 2
Rotary Tumbler Kit 3
Rotary Tumbler Kit 3 With Two Drums
Rotary Tumbler Mini With One Drum
Triblets
Ultrasonic Cleaner Kit 1
Ultrasonic Cleaner Kit 1
Ultrasonic Cleaner Kit 1
Ultrasonic Cleaner Example
Cherry Heaven USB Loudspeakers
UK Plug
Vermiculite
Large Rubber Drum With Vanes Open
The AX-4 Digital Controller
MiniKiln Closed
Paragon BlueBird Open
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig
Activated Charcoal Granules
Caldera A Closed
Caldera AB Closed
Fusion CS14D Open
Fusion CS14SB Closed
Caldera XL Closed
FireFly A Closed
The Paragon Fusion-7 Open
Fusion 8 Open
GL18ADTSD Open
HT-14D Closed
Janus 1613 Open
KM14D Open
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup
Pearl 18 Open
PMT21
Potter & Brumfield Relay
SC-2 Black Open
SC2 Open
SC2B Open
SC4 Closed
SpeedFire Pro Closed
SpeedFire Pro Open
Sentry Xpress 4.0
Sentry 2.0
SC-2 Pink Open
SC-2 Turqoise Open
SC-2 Purple Open
The Paragon ST-8 Table
TNF 1613 Closed
GL Table
Xpress Top Row Bricks
USB Plug
Xpress E-12A Open
Xpress E-12AB Closed
Xpress E-14 Closed
Xpress Q-11A Open
The Paragon Fusion  6 Open
The Paragon Fusion  7 Open
The Paragon Fusion  8 Open
The Paragon Fusion 10 Open
The Paragon Fusion 14 Open
The Paragon Fusion 16 Open
The Paragon Fusion Ovation Open
The Paragon Fusion CS14D Open
The Paragon Fusion CS14S Open
The Paragon Fusion CS16D Open
The Paragon Fusion CS16S Open
The Paragon Fusion CS19D Open
The Paragon Fusion CS19S Open
The Paragon Fusion 19 Closed

The Paragon CS and Fusion Series Kilns For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion and CS series are versatile professional glass kilns, used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

With one exception, they're 925°C, top-opening, firebrick kilns, with ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. The exception is the large Fusion Ovation which has a Sentry 12-key.

They're ideal for your arts centre, college, craft class, glass-art workshop, home business, jewellery studio, school, or course centre providing glass-work courses.


Although the Fusion and CS series look similar, there are important differences. The Fusion series have an opening lid: the body is fixed to the base. The CS clamshell S series have a hinged body: it all lifts up with the lid attached. The Fusion clamshell D series have a hinged body and lid: either can lift up. So, S means single opening and D means double opening.


Within the kiln's size and temperature limits, you can make architectural parts, beads, bowls, candleholders, chandeliers, decorations, earrings, figurines, fingerprint keepsakes, glass-art, jewellery, miniatures, model parts, necklaces, ornaments, pendants, plates, rings, souvenirs, stained-glass designs, tableware, tiaras, and tiles, as unique hand-crafted pieces or repeatable stock for sale.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


For prices, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. They're for UK-EU voltage CE-marked kilns with safety switches, and include comprehensive manuals and UK VAT.


Cherry Heaven TV has made an on-line photo book featuring these popular kilns: click the Cherry Heaven TV player above. It starts with the Paragon Fusion 6, and continues with the larger Fusion 7, 8, 10, 14, and 16, the Fusion Clamshell CS14S, CS14D, CS16S, CS16D, CS19S, and CS19D, and the Fusion Ovation.

THE PARAGON FUSION SERIES: PHOTOS

The Paragon CS And Fusion Series Kilns For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

To look at the pop-up photos, hold your mouse over the zoom buttons below: you don't need to click.


The Paragon Fusion 6 The Paragon Fusion 6.

The Paragon Fusion 7 The Paragon Fusion 7.

The Paragon Fusion 8 The Paragon Fusion 8.

The Paragon Fusion 10 The Paragon Fusion 10.

The Paragon Fusion 14 The Paragon Fusion 14.

The Paragon Fusion CS14S The Paragon Fusion CS14S.

The Paragon Fusion CS14D The Paragon Fusion CS14D.

The Paragon Fusion 16 The Paragon Fusion 16.

The Paragon Fusion CS16S The Paragon Fusion CS16S.

The Paragon Fusion CS16D The Paragon Fusion CS16D.

The Paragon Fusion 19 The Paragon Fusion 19.

The Paragon Fusion CS16S The Paragon Fusion CS19S.

The Paragon Fusion CS16D The Paragon Fusion CS19D.

The Paragon Fusion Ovation The Paragon Fusion Ovation.

Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 The Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Sentry 2.0 The Paragon Sentry 12-Key Programmer.

STAY ON THIS PAGE, OR LOOK AT OTHER KILNS?

Electric Kilns Or Paragon Kilns? Or Mail Or Call A Technician For Help.

This comprehensive internet resource lets you research and compare kilns in your own time. And it'll help you make the right choice instead of an expensive mistake: especially if, as you learn, you discover new materials or processes, want to make larger pieces, want to run classes, or find a promising business niche.


Cherry Heaven is an EU distributor, sales, and service and support centre for electric kilns, including kilns made by Paragon, Prometheus, Kitiki, Odak, SpeedFire, and UltraLite. For convenience, I've separated the kilns into two groups on separate internet resources, Electric Kilns and Paragon Kilns, although there's cross-over:

Generally, the smaller plug-in table-top kilns are used for smaller things. They're popular for annealing beads, Art Clay metal clays, dichroics, enamelling, fusing, making jewellery, mixed-media work, PMC silver clay, porcelain, Prometheus bronze clay, and ProCopper clay. Refer to Electric Kilns.

Generally, the larger wired-in floor-standing and work-top kilns are used for larger things. They're popular for annealing, casting, ceramics, earthenware, glass, heat treating, knife making, pottery, raku, and stoneware. Refer to Paragon Kilns.


Depending which resource you're currently on, links to other resources are above the menu bar near the top of the page. If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call .

THE PARAGON CS AND FUSION SERIES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The Paragon Fusion 6 Open The Paragon Fusion 10 Open The Paragon Fusion 16 Open The Paragon Fusion CS16D Open

Paragon CS And Fusion Kilns For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion and CS series are versatile professional glass kilns, used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

There are fourteen kilns in the series: the multi-sided Fusion 6, 7, 8, and 10, the square Fusion 14, 16, and 19, the square CS14D, CS14S, CS16D, CS16S, CS19D, CS19S, and the oval Ovation.

The Fusion 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 19, and Ovation have opening lids. The CS14S, CS16S, and CS19S have an opening body, and the CS14D, CS16D, and CS19D have separately-opening lids and bodies. Most can accept a bead-annealing door, or doors, and a heat-resistant glass viewing-window.

With one exception, they're 925°C, top-opening, firebrick kilns, with ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. The large Fusion Ovation has a Sentry 12-key.


Paragon's naming conventions are more consistent than usual. For the Fusion multi-sided kilns, it represents the number of sides: 6, 7, 8, or 10. For the CS and Fusion square kilns, it represents the internal floor dimension: 14, 16, or 19 inches.

The model names we use have suffixes for the standard options. For example: the Fusion 14B has bead-annealing doors, the Fusion 14W has a heat-resistant glass viewing-window, and the Fusion 14BW has both.


For a bead-annealing kiln, look at the 650°C Paragon BlueBird series. For other glass kilns, look at the 925°C Paragon GL series and the Paragon Pearl Series. And for ceramics kilns, look at the 1290°C Paragon Caldera series, the Paragon Xpress series, and the Paragon Janus Series.

For other kilns, use the main-menu link below the menu bar near the top of the page, then choose the appropriate link. However, I've included several in the table below, but just one regular model from each series with no options or upgrades.


VERSION DESCRIPTION MAX °C POWER W WEIGHT KG FIRING CHAMBER INTERIOR SIZE MM
Fusion 6 six-sided top-opening 925 1800 45 firebrick 280 x 166
Fusion 7 seven-sided top-opening 925 1800 53 firebrick 368 x 166
Fusion 8 eight-sided top-opening 925 4800 72 firebrick 445 x 279
Fusion 10 ten-sided top-opening 925 7200 93 firebrick 597 x 279
Fusion 14 square top-opening 925 1800 48 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion CS14S square body-opening 925 1800 71 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion CS14D square lid and body-opening 925 1800 71 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion 16 square top-opening 925 2400 75 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion CS16S square body-opening 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion CS16D square lid and body-opening 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion 19 square lid-opening 925 3840 95 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion CS19S square body-opening 925 3840 98 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion CS19D square lid and body-opening 925 3840 98 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion Ovation twelve-sided oval top-opening 925 7200 182 firebrick 1041 x 572 x 292
BlueBird XL rectangular two bead doors 815 1700 36 firebrick 508 x 229 x 114
Caldera A square top-opening 1290 1800 23 firebrick 203 x 203 x 171
GL 24ADTSD square front opening 925 10800 181 firebrick 610 X 572 x 381
Janus 1613 eight sided top-opener 1290 4800 78 firebrick 419 x 337
Pearl 22 square top opening 925 7200 146 firebrick 559 x 559 x 330
Xpress E12A rectangular front opening 1290 2700 38 firebrick 216 x 305 x 222

The Orton-Paragon digital programmers allow you to set up multiple sequences, each one with multiple heating, holding, or cooling segments: you can choose the heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, save the sequences, and re-use them.

There are no restrictive pre-set programmes. Pre-sets might seem to be an advantage. However, having experimented and diversified, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.


Some kilns are too large and too heavy for a regular table or worktop. If you can't find one locally, Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high with two shelves for your accessories.
Of course, although some kilns come with legs, which take up floor space, you don't have to use them. You could stand the kiln on a table if the working height is more convenient. However, you'd need to put the kiln on 50mm thick firebricks so that the air can circulate.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a screwdriver, and you can refer to our help pages and watch our on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

THE PARAGON FUSION 6 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 6 Open

The Paragon Fusion 6 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 6 is a 925°C, six-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

You can use popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional lid-activated switch that cuts off the power if the kiln is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a chain lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and an encapsulated relay.

The outer steel case measures 483mm x 508mm x 317mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high stand. The shipping weight is about 45Kg.

The six-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 280mm x 166mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast-firing elements lying in a groove in the 76mm thick bricks. The two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 6B has a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door with a bead-mandrel holder in one of the sides, the Fusion 6W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 6BW has both.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door: factory fitted
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 6 is a fully programmable starter kiln for general glass work, and ideal for course venues, schools, and studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

Unless you're on a limited budget, the Fusion 7 might be better: it's 1.64 times larger inside but only costs about 10% more.

THE FUSION 6 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 6.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable hexagonal 254mm x 12mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one hexagonal 254mm x 12mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION 7 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 7 Open

The Paragon Fusion 7 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 7 is a 925°C, seven-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

You can use popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional lid-activated switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 559mm x 622mm x 317mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 47Kg.

The seven-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 368mm x 166mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast-firing elements lying in a groove in the 76mm thick bricks. The two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 7B has a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door with a bead-mandrel holder in one of the sides, the Fusion 7W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 7BW has both.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door: factory fitted
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 7 is a fully programmable starter kiln for general glass work, and ideal for course venues, schools, and studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

If you're on a limited budget, the Fusion 6 might be better: however it's 0.63 times smaller inside and only costs about 10% less.

THE FUSION 7 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 7.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable round 330mm x 12mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 330mm x 12mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION 8 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 8 Open

The Paragon Fusion 8 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 8 is a 925°C, eight-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 4800W, so it needs a 20A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 635mm x 724mm x 419mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 72Kg.

The eight-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 445mm x 279mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks and the 64mm thick side bricks. The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As it has side elements, a bead-anealing door can't be fitted into one of the sides. However, the Fusion 8W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a programmer upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful and time-saving features
a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key
a USB computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 8 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold three shelves. As it's 2.30 times larger inside than the Fusion 7, it has top and side elements for better heat disribution.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

If you upgrade, the Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface.


There is a plug-in 13A 3200W Fusion 8. However, compared to the wired-in 4800W version, it takes longer to heat up, might not reach its maximum temperature, and the set temperature could change with local voltage variations. There's a limit to the heat that a 13A socket can provide and sustain. However, I can have it made for you if plug-in is important.

THE FUSION 8 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 8.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable octagonal 394mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one octagonal 394mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for three.

THE PARAGON FUSION 10 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 10 Open

The Paragon Fusion 10 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 10 is a 925°C, ten-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has four lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 775mm x 1003mm x 419mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 93Kg.

The ten-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 597mm x 279mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks and the 64mm thick side bricks. The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As it has side elements, a bead-anealing door can't be fitted into one of the sides. However, the Fusion 10W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a programmer upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful and time-saving features
a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key
a USB computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 10 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold three shelves. Like the Fusion 8, it has top and side elements for better heat disribution.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

If you upgrade, the Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface.

THE FUSION 10 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 10.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable round 533mm x 18mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 533mm x 18mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

There's an alternative recommended kit, not included in the price: one half-round 533mm x 18mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts. A half-shelf allows you to fire things of different heights.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for three.

THE PARAGON FUSION 14 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 14 Open

The Paragon Fusion 14 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 14 is a 925°C, four-sided, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 660mm x 559mm x 356mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 48Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 356mm x 356mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks. There's room for nine 100mm x 100mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 14B has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 14W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 14BW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 14.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a low-dust ceramic-fibre top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 14 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

THE FUSION 14 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 14.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 305mm x 330mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 305mm x 330mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS14S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS14S Open

The Paragon Fusion CS14S For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS14S opens in a different way to the Fusion 14, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln.

The CS14SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS14SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS14SBW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 14.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS14D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS14D Open

The Paragon Fusion CS14D For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS14D opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 14, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. Otherwise, it's the same as the Fusion 14.

THE PARAGON FUSION 16 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 16 Open

The Paragon Fusion 16 For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 16 is a 925°C, four-sided, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 2400W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on four steel legs and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 749mm x 610mm x 406mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 75Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 406mm x 406mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks. There's room for nine 120mm x 120mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 16B has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 16W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 16BW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 16.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

a low-dust ceramic-fibre top: factory fitted
an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 16 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

The Paragon Fusion 16 is about the same size as the KilnCare HobbyFuser but, in April 2014, was about £300 cheaper. including the stand, a pro shelf, VAT and delivery. And there are all the opening options, the Fusion 16, CS16S, and CS16D, and the various upgrades.

THE FUSION 16 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 16.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 356mm x 381mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 356mm x 381mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS16S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS16S Open

The Paragon Fusion CS16S For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS16S opens in a different way to the Fusion 16, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln.

The CS16SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS16SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS16SBW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 16.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS16D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS16D Open

The Paragon Fusion CS16D For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS16D opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 16, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. firebrick, Otherwise, it's the same as the Fusion 16.

THE PARAGON FUSION 19 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion 19 Closed

The Paragon Fusion CS19S For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion 19 is a 925°C, four-sided, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer.

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 3840W, so it needs a 20A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, the elements are embedded: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 864mm x 838mm x 387mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 98Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 483mm x 483mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast firing elements embedded in the easy-to-open, counter-balanced, 70mm thick ceramic-fibre lid. There's room for nine 150mm x 150mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


It's also available as the Fusion 19B with two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 19W with a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 19BW with both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 19.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
a steel table
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 19 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple options.

THE FUSION 19 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 19.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 432mm x 432mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 432mm x 432mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS19S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS19S Open

The Paragon Fusion CS19S For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS19S opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 16, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. There's a hinge counter-balance system under the kiln so that the body lifts easily.

The CS19SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors and bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS19SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS19SBW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 19.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS19D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion CS19D Open

The Paragon Fusion CS19D For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS19D opens in a different way to the Fusion 16, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. There's a hinge counter-balance system under the kiln so that the body lifts easily. Otherwise, it's the same as the Fusion 19.

THE PARAGON FUSION OVATION GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
The Paragon Fusion Ovation Open

The Paragon Fusion Ovation For Glass Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

The Paragon Fusion Ovation is a 925°C, ten-sided, top-opening, wired-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer

It's used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Art Clay silver clay, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has four lifting handles and a separate stand with eight legs, the spring-assisted lid has a stay-open support, and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front corner, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel stainless-steel sheathed thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 1448mm x 991mm x 508mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 183Kg.

The ten-sided oval firebrick firing chamber measures 1041mm x 572mm x 292mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top and side bricks.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As it has side elements, a bead-anealing door can't be fitted into one of the sides. However, the Ovation W has two 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-windows in two of the sides. And there's also a slightly taller version: 38mm taller inside. However it's a 9600W kiln, so it needs a 40A wired-in power supply.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control
a USB computer interface
two 50mmx 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-windows
a mercury relay: factory fitted
an S-type thermocouple: factory fitted
stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
ceramic fibre cloth
ceramic block
HEPA dust mask
clear protective glasses
glare-resistant glasses
heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion Ovation is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios. It's large enough to hold four shelf layers, arranged as full shelves or half shelves.

THE FUSION OVATION RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion Ovation.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two durable 533mm x 457mm x 15mm half-oval cordierite shelves, twelve 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two durable 533mm x 457mm x 15mm half-oval shelves and twelve posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for three.

However, if you want to work on one continuous surface, there's an alternative recommended kit, not included in the price: one oval 991mm x 521mm x 38mm Dyson extruded shelf and four 457mm x 38mm x 38mm shelf-support rails.

WHY BUY A PARAGON CS OR FUSION?

The Paragon CS And Fusion Series Compared to Similar Kilns From Corby, Efco, Evenheat, And KilnCare.

The internet, like any other unchecked resource, is open to claims that whatever is being sold is the best, the newest, or the cheapest, and it's being sold by the largest dealer or the premier distributor.

As an example, in October 2013, one well-known kiln and glass supplier assured you that their prices were the cheapest in the UK. Except their SC2 was £134 more than it was here.

This comprehensive internet resource will help you choose the right kiln, and avoid making an expensive mistake: especially if, as you learn more, you discover new materials or processes, want to make larger pieces, decide to run courses, or find a promising business niche.


So, why buy a Paragon CS or Fusion? Let's start with the programmer:


The Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer allows you to set up several firing sequences, each one with up to eight heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

It's built in, so you don't need a separate box with a cable, a separate thermocouple with a cable, and a separate stand: more stuff on your worktop. And, for temperature consistency, the built-in thermocouple is always in the same position.

There are no restrictive features such as single-sequence use or pre-set programmes. Fixed programmes might seem to be an advantage. However, having diversified and experimented, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.

The programmer is easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. Of course, UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.

Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes using the Cherry Heaven Player. To play, pause, or stop the player, or adjust the volume, click the controls or, whilst it's playing, drag the time-line slider to a new position.


Now, the general construction:


There are three opening styles: the lid, the body, or the lid or the body. You can choose the style that suits the way you work.

The heavy-gauge nickel-plated copper wiring has high-temperature glass-braided insulation. The thermocouple, which senses temperature inside the kiln, is protected with a high-nickel stainless-steel sheath for long life.

The elements lie in pinless dropped-recessed grooves in the firebrick, and are quick, easy, and inexpensive to replace should they eventually fail.

It's widely believed that glass viewing-windows will cloud permanently or crack by about 925°C. The glass used in the Paragon Caldera, FireFly, Fusion, SC, and Xpress series kilns has been time-tested at 1260°C.


Kilns from competing manufacturers typically don't have built-in programmers, don't come with professional shelf kits, have out-dated features, use restrictive pre-set programmes, aren't in stock, or there are no spares. They're generally more expensive, but smaller and don't get as hot, so less versatile. Misleading first-sight prices often exclude VAT.

Compared to broadly similar Paragon kilns, other kilns have a simpler programmer or no programmer, are smaller inside, don't get as hot, don't come with a shelf kit, or are considerably more expensive.

And, generally, there aren't any options and upgrades: top opening, thicker firebricks, ceramic-fibre lids, bead-annealing doors, viewing windows, extra peepholes or vents, 12-key programmers, mercury switches, electric kiln vents, auxilliary power outputs, RS232 or USB computer interfaces, and different shelf kits.

With some retailers, there wasn't a price list. With others, the same kilns were a lot more expensive. With some on-line order-forms, VAT was only evident after submitting all the personal and card details.

For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a screwdriver, and you can refer to our help pages and watch our on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

HELP WITH THE BASICS RECOMMENDED READING
General Help

Options, Upgrades, Shelf Kits, Firing Characteristics, Keeping A Kiln Log, And Relevant Materials And Processes.

This concludes the kiln sections. The remainder of the page is about options, upgrades, shelf kits, firing characteristics, a kiln log, and relevant materials and processes. Unless you're already working with a kiln, it's recommended reading.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, use the main-menu link below the menu bar near the top of the page on the left, then choose help.

OPTIONS AND UPGRADES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon SC2: Pink With A RH Door Hinge

Paragon's Options And Upgrades.

Individual kilns are described on this this page. However, it's important to learn about the options and upgrades. The photo shows an SC2 customised for a PMC studio: hot pink, with a RH hinge, and a maximum temperature set to 925°C.


An option is cosmetic or practical, such as a black respray, a right-hand door hinge, a peephole-vent, a bead-annealing door, a door or lid viewing window, or an EU plug. An upgrade extends the standard specifications, such as a higher temperature, a 12-key programmer, an electric kiln vent, or a USB interface.

Not every option or upgrade applies to every kiln, so mail or call if you need help. However, if they're appropriate, they're listed in the on-line shop, so just add up the ones you want: but order them with your kiln as they're often difficult, expensive, or impossible, to implement afterwards. It might help if you make a few notes of your own as you read?


Kilns use regular single-phase 230V mains so have 230V EU elements, not 120V US elements. The smaller kilns have UK 13A three-pin plugs: so they're ready to go. If you're not in the UK, use a plug adapter or cut off the UK plug and fit your own: it won't invalidate the guarantee. Alternatively, a special-order kiln can have a factory-fitted EU plug.

Most kilns can be re-engineered for 110V, 200V, 208V, or 240V, single phase or three phase, or 440V three phase. If you're interested, mail or call.


Although standard EU and US kilns have the same maximum temperature, set by the design and the programmer, some 1095°C firebrick kilns can be re-engineered to run at 1230°C, 1260°C, or 1290°C, making them versatile mixed-media kilns. However, to use 1290°C full-on hour after hour, choose an industrial or professional model.

Also, to maintain 1290°C, some upgraded kilns might need thicker firebricks, so they'll be slightly smaller inside: about 12mm on each side. Mail or call if you're interested, or need help deciding.

The factory-set maximum temperature is based on the reliable average UK voltage of 240V. If there is a regional, national, or temporary voltage drop, high-temperature kilns might take longer to reach their specified maximum.


BlueBird, HT, KM, PMT, SC, and Xpress kilns are normally blue, but can be factory-painted black, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, as they're made to order, they can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly the same as in the photo.

The door hinge is usually on the left. However, a right-hand hinge might be better if you're left-handed: unless the kiln will be in the left-hand corner of your studio or there's an obstacle that will make access difficult. Give this some thought.

Most of the medium-size top-opening kilns have a standard lift-up lid. Firebrick lids seem heavy to some people so, if you feel that a ceramic fibre lid, a hydraulic-assisted lid, or spring-assisted lid would be easier, mail or call.


If the kiln comes with a Sentry Xpress 3-Key ramp-hold programmer, youi can upgrade to a Sentry Xpress 3-Key cone-fire and ramp-hold programmer, usually preferred for ceramics. Cone-fire is implemented in the programmer's software and is very easy to use: just set a cone number and start the firing sequence.

Depending on the kiln, you can upgrade a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer to a Sentry 12-Key ten segment ramp-hold, or cone-fire and ramp-hold, programmer, with advanced firing features and connection options. The 3-key has a 12-month guarantee and the 12-key has a 30-month guarantee.

A Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the oin-line shop.


Depending on the kiln, the 12-key programmer has a power-ratio programmer feature: you can adjust the heat balance between the top and sides in 10% steps and control the heat distribution over larger pieces.

Kilns which only heat from the top, as opposed to the top and sides, don't have the power-ratio feature. However, the initial cost-saving has to be offset against fewer firing options.


With larger kilns, serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless grooves in the fibre: or, as a luxury upgrade, with the elements completely embedded in the fibre.


Most kilns come with a standard long-lasting electro-mechanical relay. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, you can upgrade to a mercury relay which has a lifetime of several million on-off cycles. The relay can switch 30A, so if you have a kiln that needs 50A, you'll need two relays.

Most kilns come with a standard K-type nickel-chromium thermocouple. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, especially at temperatures above 1100°C, you can upgrade to an S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple.


Some front-opening kilns are just too large and too heavy for a regular worktop, so Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high, with two shelves for your accessories. The luxury version, with castors, is 63mm taller. If you decide to buy on old wood table, the rigidity of the legs is vital otherwise it will collapse like a parallelogram.


Some bronze and copper clays, and some metals, need to be fired in activated charcoal granules in a stainless steel container. The SC2 and SC3, the Caldera-A, and the Xpress E9A. E10A, and 1193 can hold a one-litre container: most other kilns can hold a three-litre but check the internal size before you buy the container.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, wear glare-resistant glasses which protect your eyes from IR and UV.


Paragon kilns, made in the US, have been re-engineered and comprehensively tested for the UK, the EU, and most other countries. They're CE Marked and comply with EU safety standards. They're guaranteed for a year, and Paragon has an international, informed, and supportive user-base, and spares and repair centres.

The digital programmer shows degrees Celsius, not degrees Fahrenheit as in the US. If you need to convert, this is how to do it. However, if you want to work in Fahrenheit, you can make a simple change to the programmer.


In the unlikely event that your kiln develops a fault, it's reassuring to know that home repairs are easy and need little more than a screwdriver and a pair of pliers. An engineer can guide you on the phone, and there are on-line repair videos.

As with a lot of heavy consumer products made in the US but sold elsewhere, Paragon's guarantee covers replacement parts, not a return to the distributor or factory, and not any labour costs. However, as an example, replacing a programmer takes just a few minutes.

KILN FURNITURE: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT
A Paragon Shelf Kit

Kiln Furniture: Shelves, And Posts.

Most kilns have a recommended furniture kit. For smaller kilns, it's generally one shelf and four posts: included in the price because it fits in the box and doesn't add much to the shipping weight.

You get a professional, durable, cordierite shelf with four 12mm high posts. You don't get a soft, ceramic-fibre shelf, often described as free, that will gradually break up and need replacing.


For larger kilns, it's not included in the price because you'll probably want to choose your own mix of shelves, half-shelves, smaller shelves, and assorted-height posts.

Shelf kits usually include 25mm x 25mm x 12mm shelf posts, When flat, they're 12mm high: on their sides, they're 25mm. Other sizes, up to 150mm high, are available, so you can choose the shelf spacing that suits your kiln and your work.


The recommended kit is usually the simplest that works: not an expensive collection that I've put together for you. However, extra shelf kits allow you to stack your work, optimising your use of the firing chamber volume, the unit-cost of firing, and your time. And extra half-shelves or smaller shelves allow you to fire a mix of shorter and taller pieces.


A shelf should stay on the floor of the firing chamber all the time in case you accidentally spill or melt anything: solidified glass or metal is impossible to pick off without damaging the ceramic-fibre or firebrick.

Shelves are not meant to be an exact fit in the kiln. You need finger space all round and they mustn't scrape the kiln walls every time they're put in or taken out.

Although they look tough, most ceramics break if they're dropped, so it's a good idea to have spare shelves, especially if your business depends on your kiln or you're running courses.


During firing sequences with heating, holding, and cooling segments, the elements turn on and off repeatedly. In a small kiln, with little residual heat, the inevitable temperature changes can make glass crack as it expands and contracts. A thick heavy shelf stores heat and, because it's resting on posts, the air circulates, helping to even out the normal temperature fluctuations.


If you're buying your first kiln, you're probably interested in one material, such as silver clay, or one process, such as enamelling. However, after a few successes, and failures, most people want to try different materials, make larger pieces, experiment with combinations, fire more at a time, and soon become interested in something else: or everything else. Some start a business or run classes.

You might want a full shelf, two half-shelves, several mixed shelves, a set of shelf posts, a bead-mandrel holder, glass separator, hot gloves, kiln wash, a knife-making rack, pyrometric cones, a tile holder, or other accessories.

Shelves are heavy, so Kits ordered separately need a box and protective packing and attract an extra delivery charge. Outside the UK mainland, this might be expensive. So, if you think you'll need them, order them with your kiln, along with any other accessories, materials, parts, or tools.


For dichroics, enamelling, and glass fusing, put kiln paper on the shelf to stop the glass sticking: it's simpler and cleaner to use than glass separator. Bullseye Thinfire shelf paper, probably the most popular, ensures easy separation between your glass and the kiln shelf. One side feels slightly smoother than the other: that's the glass side.

Generally, glasswork needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf than between closely stacked shelves, although experienced glass artists often use several shelves succesfully.

Delicate pieces can be fired on a puffed-up ceramic-fibre cloth: on a shelf. Round pieces, that could roll to one side, can be fired on a hollowed-out ceramic-fibre block.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with ceramic-fibre blocks, ceramic cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot, or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV.


If your day-to-day work depends on your kiln and down-time will be disruptive or expensive, it's a good idea to have spares: extra shelves, a selection of posts, elements, a relay, and a thermocouple.

You can learn about ceramic blocks and cloths, charcoal, dust masks, glare-resistant glasses, glass separator, heat-resistant gloves, kiln vents, kiln wash, programmers, protective glasses, USB interfaces, shelf paper, tools, and other accessories, using the accessories link below the menu bar near the top of the page. And they're all in the on-line shop.


Shelves are checked before despatch and are wrapped protectively. But they're not guaranteed and we cannot be responsible for any later damage.

AN ELECTRIC KILN VENT

The Paragon-Orton Vent Master Kiln Vent.

Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled

Re-freshing the air in a kiln minimises surface blemishes when firing clays, ensures brighter colours when firing glasses, and prevents colour contamination when firing different glazes.

A factory-fitted Orton Vent Master removes airborn pollutants straight away and redirects them to the outside. Most kilns can be factory-readied: the vent just needs on-site assembly.

Venting the kiln has little effect on the heat-up time and the maximum temperature. However, the cooling time is reduced considerably, depending on the size of the kiln,


The UK vent motor is rated at 230V 132W, so it can use a regular mains socket. The suction cup and pipe are attached to the kiln but the motor can be remote: it doesn't get hot and the fan is easy to clean.

There's always a small gap, for expansion, around any kiln door or lid, so enough new air can be drawn in to replace the old air being drawn out. However, peepholes act as straight-through cold-air inlets: so you might not want them?

The VentMaster can be turned on and off manually. Alternatively, if the kiln has a Sentry 12-key programmer, the vent can be plugged into the kiln's auxilliary power outlet and controlled by the programmer. The power outlet has to be fitted during manufacture, so decide before you order.


As with Paragon kilns, Orton Vent Masters can be re-engineered for any electrical system. They conform to the demanding 1992 Uniform Mechanical Code and the UL standard, and are CE Marked for the EU. They have a two year limited warranty.

FIRING CHARACTERISTICS

How Electric Kilns Work.

Generally, programmable kilns work like this: as soon as the programmer's sequence starts, the kiln starts to heat up. The thermocouple tells the programmer the current internal temperature and, depending on the sequence you've chosen, the programmer turns the elements on or off to control the heating rate, maintain the target temperature, or control the cooling rate. When the sequence is complete, the kiln beeps, and the sequence stops.

For safety, the programmer doesn't switch the full mains voltage. Instead it drives a relay, an electro-mechanical switch. The programmer uses a low voltage to activate the switch which turns the high voltage elements on or off.


When the target temperature is reached, the programmer switches the elements off. However, residual heat in the firing chamber allows the internal temperature to overshoot the target temperature briefly before starting to fall back.

This overshoot is more evident at low temperatures than at high temperatures. For example: 300°C will probably overshoot to 330°C whereas 800°C will probably only overshoot to 805°C before starting to fall back.

During the hold-time, with the elements still off, the temperature starts to fall. When the programmer switches the elements back on, the firing chamber will initially absorb some of the new heat before the temperature recovers. The continual switching of the elements on and off causes the internal temperature to oscillate either side of the target temperature.

This is similar to central heating. If you set it for 21°C, it probably oscillates, quite slowly, around 20°C to 22°C: and you won't notice. The accuracy will depend on where the thermostat is sited, how quickly it responds, how accurate it is, how long it takes for the radiators to heat up, and if you have doors and windows open. The temperature will probably be slightly different in each room.

So, regardless of the thermocouple temperature, the actual temperature of your work will be slightly different, depending on its position on the kiln shelf, the vertical spacing of any stacked shelves, and its nearness to the elements, a lid, a door, a bead door, or a window. Learn to take it into account if you're working with temperature-critical materials or processes.


Remember that glass needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf at the bottom than between closely stacked shelves.


Kiln doors and lids are not meant to be a perfect fit otherwise, at high temperatures, there'd be no room for expansion and movement, and the door could stick and the ceramic-fibre or firebricks could crack.

All kilns smell a bit during the first few firings, just like a toaster or a fan heater. If you're worried about fumes, open a window.

Eventually, with normal use, kilns discolour slightly, inside and outside, and some firebricks might develop hairline cracks. Your kiln is a versatile, robust, red-hot tool: not an ornament.

KEEPING A KILN LOG

Keeping A Kiln Log.

Using your kiln successfully needs critical research and frequent tests, especially as things that work for your friends or teachers might not work in the same way for you. It's also very important to learn how to creatively use unexpected effects. So, keep a firing log:


Buy a durable notebook. Use a new page for every firing, and draw diagrams of the shelves, their vertical spacing, and the position of your work on the shelves. Along with your work, put a few scraps at different places on the shelves to learn how things change. Describe the material, the shape of your work, the firing cycle, and the end result. Add a few photos and sketches, and mark the page corners with coloured dots or symbols as a quick reminder of your success rating.

A kiln log is vital if you're experimenting with temperature-sensitive materials, or working with coloured dichroic glasses, enamels, glazes, or china paints, and a skilled artist will use the kiln log to advantage to re-create effects. It'll be particularly useful if you have to repeat a commission, or you have a long holiday before returning to your studio.


Some Paragon kilns have a Sentry 12-key programmer which can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.

GLASS
Obsidian

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, moulded, poured, pressed, coated, decorated, engraved, or heat-treated.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons, and the pitiful ritual of circumcision.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads

Annealing.

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long preocess, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass

Dichroic Glass.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourized onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass

Fire Polishing.

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is typically used to round the edges of glass between fusing and slumping.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Lauscha By Carrie Fertig

Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping.

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads

Lampwork And Beads.

If you're a beginner, you might have wondered what lampworking means. Very briefly, lampwork is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a gas torch to melt rods and tubes of clear and coloured glass. Once in a soft state, the shape is formed by turning and using tools.

Early lampworking was done in the flame of an oil lamp, with the artist blowing air into the flame through a pipe. Most artists today use torches that burn propane, natural gas, or butane, although kilns are becoming increasingly popular.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre

Pâte De Verre.

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

TACK FUSING

Tack Fusing.

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

WARM GLASS

Warm Glass.

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. The term warm glass is often replaced by kiln forming.

SILVER CLAY
Art Clay Silver Pendant By Petra Cameron

Aida Art Clay Silver And Mitsubishi PMC Silver Clay.

There are two popular makes of silver clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine silver powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Silver and PMC Silver, sometimes just called silver clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 999 silver: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

Although Paragon kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

BRONZE CLAY
Bronze-Copper Lobster Bangle By Gordon Uyehara

Bronze Clay And BronzClay.

There are three popular makes of bronze clay: Bronze Clay made by ClayMania, BronzClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Bronze ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine bronze powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

Clay Mania Bronze Clay and MetalAdventures BronzClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural bronze colour, and charcoal made from coal produces a colourful range of patinas.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid bronze, an alloy of 89% copper and 11% tin: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

Although Paragon kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Bronze, which is almost certainly Prometheus Bronze Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why ProBronze is £19.75 for 100gm with no delivery charge and Creative Bronze is £24.95 plus £4.95 shipping.


In November 2012, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 24 times more than Prometheus Bronze Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, bronze is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

COPPER CLAY
Copper Earring By Zina Kuscynska Richterova

Copper Clay And CopprClay.

There are four popular makes of copper clay: Art Clay Copper made by Aida Chemical Industries, Copper Clay made by ClayMania, CopprClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Copper ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine copper powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Clay Mania Copper Clay and MetalAdventures CopprClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural copper colour.

Art Clay Copper is easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. In most kilns, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time: so you might want more than one.

Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid copper: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

Although Paragon kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Copper, which is almost certainly Prometheus Copper Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why ProCopper is £19.75 for 100gm with no delivery charge and Creative Copper is £24.95 plus £4.95 shipping.


In November 2012, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 24 times more than Prometheus Copper Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, copper is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

GLASS CLAY
Glass Clay Flowers By Geneva Perkins

Glass Clay And GlasClay.

GlasClay is made by ClayMania in vibrant colours, based on glasses from Bullseye and Oruboros. It's a clay-like material made of fine glass powder and water-soluble organic binders. It's sold as a box of twelve colours in 12gm pots.

The colours in the table below are a rough guide, and the clay powder, mixed powders, fused glass, and re-fused glass will not all look the same. They're all COE90: read this pop-up.


COLOUR COLOUR COLOUR CODE
Black Opal Bullseye 90 100
Blue Grey Opal Uroboros 90 076
Cinnabar Bullseye 90 309
Cornflower Blue Uroboros 90 408
Deep Cobalt Blue Opal Bullseye 90 147
Deep Plum Bullseye 90 1105
Emerald Green Uroboros 90 700
Grenadine Red Uroboros 90 606
Lemon Grass Opal Uroboros 90 356
Midnight Blue Bullseye 90 1118
Shaded Lawn Opal Bullseye 90 120
Vermillion Uroboros 90 6071

As it's fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the glass powder fuses, leaving solid glass: real glass, not something that just looks like glass.


GlasClay is easy to fire: put your dried pieces on some ceramic shelf-paper on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold time.

GlasClay can be shaped easily. You can make three-dimensional objects and free yourself from the constraint of working with flat glass. The size is only determined by the support you can give it. Perhaps the most exciting opportunity is to make your own beads without a torch.

The firing temperature and time are important: glass clays have to fuse, not melt. There's a difference between fusing and melting: During fusing, the binder in the glass clay vapourises and the glass powder particles bond to make solid glass. During melting, the glass powder particles liquify and lose their original clay-shape.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

Although Paragon kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

GOLD CLAY
Gold Clay Pendant By Claudia S Atkins

Aida Art Clay Gold And Mitsubishi PMC Gold Clay.

There are two popular makes of gold clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine gold powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Gold and PMC Gold, sometimes just called gold clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 22 carat gold: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

Although Paragon kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.


Art Clay Metal Clays The Cherry Heaven On-Line Shop Design Arcade Internet Design Electric Kilns For Art Clay, PMC, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, And Glass Polishers And Tumblers For Glass, Jewellery, Metals, And Stones Kitiki Jewellery Courses, Kilns, Materials, And Tools Learning English Internet Courses Lucas Cameron Lucy The Dog The Kitiki Mini Kiln For Art Clay, Enamelling, Fusing, And PMC Beauty Tools Paragon Kilns For Art Clay, PMC, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, And Glass The Prometheus Pro-1 Kiln For Art Clay, Enamelling, Fusing, And PMC The SpeedFire Pro Kiln For Art Clay, Enamelling, Fusing, And PMC The SpeedFire Pro Kiln For Art Clay, Enamelling, Fusing, And PMC Electric Kilns For Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, And Metal ClaysAccent Gold For SilverAccessories, Polishers, Tools, And TumblersArt Clay 650 and Art Clay Slow DryCherry Heaven TVThe Paragon BlueBird And BlueBird XL Kilns For Bead AnnealingPrometheus Bronze Clay, As Clay And In A SyringeThe Paragon Caldera Kilns For Ceramics, Glass, And Metal ClaysThe Electric Kilns CataloguePrometheus Copper Clay, As Clay And In A SyringeKitiki Jewellery-Making CoursesThe Sentry Xpress 4.0 Interactive DemonstrationThe Sentry 2.0 Interactive DemonstrationPhotographs Of DorsetThe Paragon FireFly Kilns For Ceramics, Glass, And Metal ClaysThe Paragon Fusion Kilns For Glass Annealing, Casting, And MouldingCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVCherry Heaven TVGlass ClayFAQs, Help, And SupportThe Paragon Home Artist Kiln For GlassThe Sentry 2.0 And Sentry Xpress 4.0 Interactive DemonstrationsImage Transfer SolutionThe Paragon KM Kilns For Heat Treating And Knife-MakingMaps Of Corfe castleJewellery-Making MaterialsMetal Clay VeneerThe Kitiki Min Kiln For Art Clay, Enamelling, Fusing, And PMCNew ProductsKiln PhotographsThe Sentry 2.0 And Sentry Xpress 4.0 Digital ProgrammersThe Paragon SC Kilns For Art Clay, Beads, Enamels, Glass, And PMCSilver EtchThe SpeedFire ProThe Electric Kilns On-Line ShopPolishers And Tumblers For Glass, Jewellery, Metals, And StonesThe UltraLite Kiln For Enamels, Keum Boo, And Metal ClaysWorking With, Using, And Repairing Kilns: VideosThe Paragon Xpress Kilns For Art Clay, Ceramics, Glass, And PMC