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Paragon FibreFuse 16 Glass Kiln
Cherry Heaven TV
Paragon FibreFuse 16 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS26 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS16D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS19S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS16D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS16S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS14S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion Ovation Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 19 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 16 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 14 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 10 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 6 Glass Kiln
Cherry Heaven TV
French Flag Italian Flag Spanish Flag Swedish Flag
UK To EU Plug Adapter
Ceramic Block
Ceramic Cloth
EU Plug
UK-EU Adapter
Potter & Brumfield Relay
Dorset, SW England
UK Plug
The AX-4 Digital Controller
MiniKiln Closed
Paragon BlueBird Open
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig
Activated Charcoal Granules
Caldera A Closed
Caldera AB Closed
Fusion CS14D Open
Fusion CS14SB Closed
Caldera XL Closed
FireFly A Closed
The Paragon Fusion-7 Open
Fusion 8 Open
GL18ADTSD Open
HT-14D Closed
Janus 1613 Open
KM14D Open
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup
Pearl 18 Open
PMT21
SC-2 Black Open
SC2 Open
SC2B Open
Paragon SC2W Open
SC4 Closed
Paragon SC1 Closed
Paragon SC1 Open
Paragon SC1W Closed
Paragon SC2BW Open
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Open
SpeedFire Pro Closed
SpeedFire Pro Open
Shelf Kit
SC-2 Jade Closed
SC-2 Black Closed
Sentry Xpress 4.0
Sentry 2.0
SC-2 Pink Open
SC-2 Pro Black Open
SC-2 Turqoise Open
SC-2 Purple Open
SC-2 Navy Closed
SC-2 Berry Closed
The Paragon ST-8 Table
TNF 1613 Closed
GL Table
Xpress Top Row Bricks
USB Plug
Xpress E-12A Open
Xpress E-12AB Closed
Xpress E-14 Closed
Xpress Q-11A Open
F500 Open
Paragon Fusion  6 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion  7S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion  7T Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion  8 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 10 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 14 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 16 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion 19 Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion Ovation Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS14S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS16S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS16D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS19S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS19D Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion CS26S Glass Kiln
Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion, CS, and FibreFuse Series Kilns For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, and Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion series are 925°C, top-opening, glass-work kilns, with ramp-hold digital programmers. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.

There are sixteen in the series: the multi-sided Fusion 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 19, and Ovation, and the square CS14S, CS14D, CS16S, CS16D, CS19S, CS19D, CS26S, and FibreFuse 16. The numbers 6, 7, 8, and 10 represent the number of sides. Other numbers are the approximate width of the firing chamber in inches.


They're typically used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.
And there's an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.


They're ideal for your arts centre, college, course venue, shared craft units, glass-art workshop, glass works, home business, jewellery studio, school, or university.


For prices, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. They're for UK-EU voltage, CE-marked, TUV tested, and CL and CSA approved kilns, with safety switches, and include a comprehensive manual, a glass-work guide, and UK VAT.


Cherry Heaven TV has made an on-line photo book featuring these popular kilns: click the Cherry Heaven TV player above. It starts with the Paragon Fusion 6, and continues with the larger Fusion 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 19, and Ovation, the CS14S, CS14D, CS16S, CS16D, CS19S, CS19D, and CS26S, and the FiberFuse 16.

THE PARAGON FUSION SERIES: PHOTOS

The Paragon Fusion, ClamShell, and FibreFuse Series Kilns For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

To look at the pop-up photos, hold your mouse over the zoom buttons below: you don't need to click.


Paragon Fusion 6 Paragon Fusion 6.

Paragon Fusion 7T Paragon Fusion 7 With Top Elements.

Paragon Fusion 7S Paragon Fusion 7 With Side Elements.

Paragon Fusion 8 Paragon Fusion 8.

Paragon Fusion 10 Paragon Fusion 10.

Paragon Fusion 14 Paragon Fusion 14.

Paragon Fusion 16 Paragon Fusion 16.

Paragon Fusion 19 Paragon Fusion 19.

Paragon Fusion Ovation Paragon Fusion Ovation.

Paragon Fusion CS14S Paragon Fusion CS14S.

Paragon Fusion CS14D Paragon Fusion CS14D.

Paragon Fusion CS16S Paragon Fusion CS16S.

Paragon Fusion CS16D Paragon Fusion CS16D.

Paragon Fusion CS16S Paragon Fusion CS19S.

Paragon Fusion CS16D Paragon Fusion CS19D.

Paragon Fusion CS26S Paragon Fusion CS26S.

Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16.

Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Digital Controller Paragon Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer.

Orton-Paragon Sentry Digital Controller Paragon Sentry 12-Key Digital Programmer.

STAY ON THIS RESOURCE, OR SWITCH TO ANOTHER

Paragon Kilns, Electric Kilns, Kitiki Kilns, Prometheus Kilns, the SpeedFire, or the UltraLite? Or Mail Or Call Cherry Heaven.

For your convenience, I've separated all the kilns into two very general groups on two separate internet resources, although there's cross-over. To switch resources, use the links above the menu bar near the top of the page.


Electric Kilns is generally for smaller plug-in table-top kilns usually used for small-scale work such as annealing beads, Art Clay metal clays, dichroics, enamels, glass fusing, jewellery, lampwork, PMC silver clay, porcelain, and vitrigraph.

Paragon Kilns is generally for larger wired-in floor-standing or table-top kilns usually used for business-scale work such as annealing, casting, ceramics, earthenware, glass panels, heat treating, making knives, porcelain, pottery, and raku.

THE PARAGON FUSION, CS, AND FIBREFUSE SERIES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion 19 Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion CS26S Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion, ClamShell, and FiberFuse Series Kilns For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lamp Work.

The Paragon Fusion series are 925°C, top-opening, glass-work kilns, with ramp-hold digital programmers. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.

There are sixteen in the series: the multi-sided Fusion 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 19, and Ovation, and the square CS14S, CS14D, CS16S, CS16D, CS19S, CS19D, CS26S, and FiberFuse 16. The numbers 6, 7, 8, and 10 represent the number of sides. Other numbers are the approximate width of the firing chamber in inches.

The Fusion 6, 7, 8, and 10 are multi-sided firebrick kilns with ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. The large Fusion Ovation is oval, has 10 sides, and a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer.

The Fusion 14, 16, and 19 are square firebrick kilns. with ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. The FibreFuse 16 is similar to the Fusion 16 but with a ceramic fibre interior.

The clamshell CS14S, CS16S, CS19S, and CS26S have a hinged body: it all lifts up with the lid attached. The clamshell CS14D, CS16D, and CS19D series have a hinged body and lid: either can lift up. So, S means single opening and D means double opening. The large CS26S has a Sentry 12-key programmer.


They're typically used for annealing, casting, fusing, sagging, slumping, dichroic glasses, fire polishing, glass art, lampwork, pâte de verre, and staining glass.

Although smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, you can still use most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.
And there's an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.

You can make architectural parts, beads, bowls, candleholders, chandeliers, decorations, earrings, figurines, fingerprint keepsakes, glass-art, jewellery, miniatures, model parts, necklaces, ornaments, pendants, plates, rings, souvenirs, stained-glass designs, tableware, tiaras, and tiles, as unique hand-crafted pieces or repeatable stock for sale.


Glass kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 925°C. For other glass kilns, look at the top-opening Pearl Series, or the front opening F Series or GL Series. These are not hot enough for ceramics.

Although some of the Fusion Series can be made with bead doors, there are kilns designed for bead annealing: look at the 650°C BlueBird or the 1095°C SC-B. If you want a similarly-sized but hotter kiln look at the 1290°C Caldera-AB. If you want a larger hotter kiln look at the 1290°C Xpress-E12AB: a very popular mixed-media kiln.

Ceramics kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1230°C to 1290°C. For these, look at the small Caldera Series, the medium Xpress Series, and the large Janus Series and PMT Series. These can also be used for glass work.


To learn more about other kilns, use the appropriate links above and below the menu bar near the top of the page. Each series has kilns of different sizes and with different options, so I've only included one of each in the table below:


VERSION DESCRIPTION MAX °C POWER W WEIGHT KG FIRING CHAMBER INTERIOR SIZE MM
Fusion 6 six-sided top-opening 925 1800 45 firebrick 280 x 166
Fusion 7T seven-sided top-opening 925 1800 46 firebrick 368 x 166
Fusion 7S seven-sided top-opening 925 2400 47 firebrick 368 x 229
Fusion 8 eight-sided top-opening 925 4800 72 firebrick 445 x 279
Fusion 10 ten-sided top-opening 925 7200 93 firebrick 597 x 279
Fusion 14 square top-opening 925 1800 48 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion CS14S square body-opening 925 1800 71 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion CS14D square lid and body-opening 925 1800 71 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
Fusion 16 square top-opening 925 2400 75 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion CS16S square body-opening 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion CS16D square lid and body-opening 925 2400 85 firebrick 406 x 406 x 165
Fusion FibreFuse 16 square top-opening 925 1800 34 fibre 406 x 406 x 152
Fusion 19 square lid-opening 925 3840 95 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion CS19S square body-opening 925 3840 98 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion CS19D square lid and body-opening 925 3840 98 firebrick 483 x 483 x 165
Fusion CS26S square body-opening 925 7200 240 firebrick 660 x 660 x 337
Fusion Ovation ten-sided oval top-opening 925 7200 182 firebrick 1041 x 572 x 292
BlueBird XL rectangular two bead doors 815 1700 36 firebrick 508 x 229 x 114
Caldera AB one bead door 1290 1800 20 firebrick 203 x 203 x 171
F500 two punty doors 650 6850 273 firebrick 610 x 457 x 565
Janus 1613 round top-opening 1290 4800 90 firebrick 419 x 337
Pearl-22 square top opening 925 7200 146 firebrick 559 x 559 x 330
PMT18 rectangular front-opening 1290 6500 170 firebrick 330 x 457 x 330
SC2B square front-opening bead door 1095 1680 16 fibre 199 x 204 x 145
Xpress E12A rectangular front opening 1290 2700 38 firebrick 216 x 305 x 222

The Orton-Paragon digital programmers allow you to set up multiple sequences, each one with multiple heating, holding, or cooling segments: you can choose the heating rates, target temperatures, hold times, and cooling rates, save the sequences, and re-use them.

There are no restrictive pre-set programmes. Pre-sets might seem to be an advantage. However, having experimented and diversified, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.


Some kilns are too large and too heavy for a regular table or worktop. If you can't find one locally, Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high with two shelves for your accessories.
Of course, although some kilns come with legs, which take up floor space, you don't have to use them. You could stand the kiln on a table if the working height is more convenient. However, you will need to put the kiln on 50mm thick firebricks so that air can circulate.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a screwdriver, and you can refer to our help pages and watch our on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

THE PARAGON FUSION 6 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 6 Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion 6 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 6 is a 925°C, six-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional lid-activated switch that cuts off the power if the kiln is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a chain lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and an encapsulated relay.

The outer steel case measures 483mm x 508mm x 317mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high stand. The shipping weight is about 45Kg.

The six-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 280mm x 166mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast-firing elements lying in a groove in the 76mm thick bricks. The two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 6B has a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door with a bead-mandrel holder in one of the sides, the Fusion 6W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 6BW has both.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door: factory fitted
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 6 is a fully programmable starter kiln for general glass work, and ideal for course venues, schools, and studios as it heats up quickly and is large enough to hold a second shelf.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

Unless you're on a limited budget, the Fusion 7T or the Fusion 7S might be better. The 7T has top elements and is 1.64 times larger inside, and the 7S has side elements and is 2.26 times larger inside.

THE FUSION 6 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 6.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable hexagonal 254mm x 12mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one hexagonal 254mm x 12mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION 7T GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 7T Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion 7 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 7T is a 925°C, seven-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional lid-activated switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 559mm x 622mm x 317mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 46Kg.

The seven-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 368mm x 166mm high, and heats from the top, with the fast-firing elements lying in a groove in the 76mm thick bricks. The two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 7SB has a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door with a bead-mandrel holder in one of the sides, the Fusion 7SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 7SBW has both.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-anealing door: factory fitted
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 7T is a fully programmable starter kiln for general glass work, and ideal for course venues, schools, and studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

There are two versions of the Paragon Fusion 7: the Fusion 7T, this one, has top elements and the Fusion 7S is 63mm taller inside with side elements. The Fusion 7S is better suited to taller work: vases, figurines, dolls, and more complicated shapes.

THE FUSION 7T RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 7T.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable round 330mm x 12mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 330mm x 12mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION 7S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 7S Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion 7 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 7S is a 925°C, seven-sided, top-opening, plug-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 2400W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional lid-activated switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 559mm x 648mm x 343mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 241mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 47Kg.

The seven-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 368mm x 229mm high, and heats from the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 64mm thick bricks. The two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As the Fusion 7S has side elements, it cannot accommodate bead-anealing doors or a glass viewing-window.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

There are two versions of the Paragon Fusion 7: the Fusion 7T has top elements and the Fusion 7S, this one, is 63mm taller inside with side elements. The Fusion 7S is better suited to taller work: vases, figurines, dolls, and more complicated shapes.

The Paragon Fusion 7S is a fully programmable starter kiln for general glass work, and ideal for course venues, schools, and studios as it's large enough to hold three shelves.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

THE FUSION 7S RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 7.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable round 330mm x 12mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 330mm x 12mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for three.

THE PARAGON FUSION 8 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion 8 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 8 is a 925°C, eight-sided, top-opening, wired-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 4800W, so it needs a 20A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has two lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 635mm x 724mm x 419mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 72Kg.

The eight-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 445mm x 279mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks and the 64mm thick side bricks. The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As the Fusion 8 has side elements, it can't accommodate a bead-anealing door. However, the Fusion 10W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a programmer upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful and time-saving features
List a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List a RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 8 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold three shelves. It's 2.30 times larger inside than the Fusion 7.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

The kiln has two relays. This is an important safety feature as if one relay fails either the top or side elements will turn off and the kiln can't over-fire and damage your work.

If you upgrade, the Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted RS232 interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the RS232 interface.


There is a plug-in 13A 3200W Fusion 8. However, compared to the wired-in 4800W version, it takes longer to heat up, might not reach its maximum temperature, and the set temperature could change with local voltage variations. There's a limit to the heat that a 13A socket can provide and sustain. However, I can have it made for you if plug-in is important.

THE FUSION 8 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 8.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable octagonal 394mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one octagonal 394mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for three.

THE PARAGON FUSION 10 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 10 Glass Kiln

The Paragon Fusion 10 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 10 is a 925°C, ten-sided, top-opening, wired-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has four lifting handles and a separate stand with four legs, the top has a stay-open lid-support, and there's a wide-view peephole-vent in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 775mm x 1003mm x 419mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 93Kg.

The ten-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 597mm x 279mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks and the 64mm thick side bricks. The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces of the lid and firing chamber are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As the Fusion 8 has side elements, it can't accommodate a bead-anealing door. However, the Fusion 10W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a programmer upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful and time-saving features
List a ceramic fibre lid with a brushed stainless-steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List a RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 10 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold three shelves. Like the Fusion 8, it has top and side elements for better heat disribution.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

The kiln has two relays. This is an important safety feature as if one relay fails either the top or side elements will turn off and the kiln can't over-fire and damage your work.

If you upgrade, the Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted RS232 interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the RS232 interface.

THE FUSION 10 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 10.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable round 533mm x 18mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 533mm x 18mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

There's an alternative recommended kit, not included in the price: one half-round 533mm x 18mm shelf and three posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts. A half-shelf allows you to fire things of different heights.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits, either to use or as spares. This kiln has room for three.

THE PARAGON FUSION 14 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 14 Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion 14 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 14 is a 925°C, square, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 660mm x 559mm x 356mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 48Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 356mm x 356mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks. There's room for nine 100mm x 100mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 14B has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 14W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 14BW has both. Otherwise, they're the same as the Fusion 14.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a low-dust ceramic-fibre lid with a brushed stainless steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the back
List two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 14 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

THE FUSION 14 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 14.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 305mm x 330mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 305mm x 330mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS14S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS14S Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion CS14S Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS14S For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS14S opens in a different way to the Fusion 14, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln.

The CS14SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS14SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS14SBW has both. Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 14.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS14S and CS14D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS14D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS14D For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS14D opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 14, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 14.

Unlike the Fusion ClamShell CS14S, it cannot accommodate bead-anealing doors or a glass viewing-window.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS14S and CS14D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION 16 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 16 Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion 16 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 16 is a 925°C, four-sided, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 2400W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on four steel legs and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 749mm x 610mm x 406mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 75Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 406mm x 406mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top bricks. There's room for nine 120mm x 120mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The Fusion 16B has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 16W has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 16BW has both. Otherwise, Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 16.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a low-dust ceramic-fibre lid with a brushed stainless steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the back
List two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 16 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The kiln has two relays. This is an important safety feature as if one relay fails either the top or side elements will turn off and the kiln can't over-fire and damage your work.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.


The Paragon Fusion 16 is about the same size as the KilnCare HobbyFuser but, in October 2015, was about £500 cheaper. including the stand, a pro shelf, VAT and delivery. And there are all the opening options, the Fusion 16, CS16S, and CS16D, and the various colours and upgrades.

THE FUSION 16 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 16.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 381mm x 381mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 381mm x 381mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS16S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS16S Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS16S For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS16S opens in a different way to the Fusion 16, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln.

The CS16SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS16SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS16SBW has both. Otherwise, Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 16.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS16S and CS16D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS16D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS16D Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS16D For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS16D opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 16, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. firebrick, Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 16.

Unlike the Fusion ClamShell CS16S, it cannot accommodate bead-anealing doors or a glass viewing-window.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS14S and CS14D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION FIBREFUSE 16 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 16 FibreFuse Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion 16 FibreFuse Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress DigitalProgrammer

The Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 is a 925°C, square, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, ceramic fibre kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the light-weight top has a side-to-side stay-cool wooden handle. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and an encapsulated relay.

The outer steel case measures 762mm x 533mm x 330mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 42Kg.

The four-sided ceramic-fibre firing chamber measures 406mm x 406mm x 152mm high, and heats from the sides with the fast firing elements lying in grooves in the 50mm thick fibre. There's room for nine 120mm x 120mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a low-dust ceramic-fibre lid with a brushed stainless steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the back
List two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion FibreFuse 16 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. The fibre interior heats quickly. It's guaranteed for two years.

Although the SC2 is a 1095°C kiln and costs less, the FibreFuse 16 uses very little more power but has 4.29 times the internal volume, so may be more practical and economic.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

THE FUSION FIBREFUSE 16 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion FibreFuse 16.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 381mm x 381mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 381mm x 381mm x 15mm shelf and four posts, or one 178mm x 178mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION 19 GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion 19 Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion 19 Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS19S For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion 19 is a 925°C, four-sided, top-opening, plug-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 3840W, so it needs a 20A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, the elements are embedded: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the side, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 864mm x 838mm x 387mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 98Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 483mm x 483mm x 165mm high, and heats from the top with the fast firing elements embedded in the easy-to-open, counter-balanced, 70mm thick ceramic-fibre lid. There's room for nine 150mm x 150mm glass tiles.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


It's also available as the Fusion 19B with two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the Fusion 19W with a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the Fusion 19BW with both. Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 19.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a low-dust ceramic-fibre lid with a brushed stainless steel top: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the back
List two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors
List a 75mmx 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion 19 is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. It's guaranteed for two years.

The kiln has two relays. This is an important safety feature as if one relay fails either the top or side elements will turn off and the kiln can't over-fire and damage your work.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent, mercury relay, and S-type thermocouple.

THE FUSION 19 RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion 19.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 432mm x 432mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 432mm x 432mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS19S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS19S Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion CS19S Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS19S For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS19S opens in a different way to the regular Fusion 16, Instead of the lid lifting up, the whole body lifts up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. There's a hinge counter-balance system under the kiln so that the body lifts easily.

The CS19SB has two 137mm x 50mm letter-box style bead-anealing doors with bead-mandrel holders in one of the sides, the CS19SW has a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in one of the sides, and the CS19SBW has both. Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 19.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS19S and CS19D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS19D GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS19D Glass Kiln Sentry Xpress Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS19D For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion ClamShell CS19D opens in a different way to the Fusion 16, Although the lid can lift up separately, the whole body can lift up, making it easier to arrange your work on the floor of the kiln. There's a hinge counter-balance system under the kiln so that the body lifts easily. Otherwise, it's very similar to the Fusion 19.

Unlike the Fusion ClamShell CS19S, it cannot accommodate bead-anealing doors or a glass viewing-window.


Mercury relays need to be mounted vertically, so any tilt stops them working. The regular Fusion kilns can have a mercury relay upgrade because the control box doen't tilt when you open the kiln. The CS19S and CS19D can't.

THE PARAGON FUSION CS26S GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion CS26S Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion CS26S Glass Kiln Sentry Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion CS26S For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion CS26S is a 925°C, square, top-opening, wired-in, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. In Paragon black, or customised berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, the elements are embedded: an important safety feature. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The steel body stands on a steel base and the top has a stay-open lid-support. The electrical components, located on the front, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and a long-life mercury relay.

The outer steel case measures 921mm x 1067mm x 705mm high, including the programmer housing, the 50mm high stand, and other hardware. The shipping weight is about 240Kg.

The four-sided firebrick firing chamber measures 660mm x 660mm x 337mm high, and heats from the top and sides with fast firing top elements enclosed in six quartz tubes in the easy-to-open, counter-balanced, 70mm thick ceramic-fibre lid, and three rows of side elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick bricks.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As the Fusion CS26S has side elements, it can't accommodate a bead-anealing door or a glass viewing-window.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, blue, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally black
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List an RS232 computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion CS26S is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios as it's large enough to hold a second shelf. There's room for nine 150mm x 150mm glass tiles. It's guaranteed for two years.

The optional dust-free one-piece ceramic-fibre lid is a favourite with serious glass artists, as are the electric vent and S-type thermocouple.

THE FUSION CS26S RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion CS26S.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one durable 610mm x 610mm x 25mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one 610mm x 610mm x 25mm shelf and four posts, or one 560mm x 279mm x 25mm shelf and four posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for two.

THE PARAGON FUSION OVATION GLASS ANNEALING, CASTING, FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Paragon Fusion Ovation Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion Ovation Glass Kiln Paragon Fusion Ovation Glass Kiln Sentry Digital Programmer

The Paragon Fusion Ovation For Glass Annealing, Beads, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, Slumping, And Lampwork.

The Paragon Fusion Ovation is a 925°C, ten-sided, top-opening, wired-in, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. In Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


The UK kiln is rated at 230V 7200W, so it needs a 30A wired-in power supply. To comply with EU safety regulations, it's fitted with an additional switch that cuts off the power when the lid is opened: an important safety feature included in the price. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The stainless steel body has four lifting handles and a separate stand with eight legs, the spring-assisted lid has a stay-open support, and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in one of the sides. The electrical components, located on the front corner, stay cool, even at extended hold times. For long life, there's a high-nickel thermocouple and two encapsulated relays.

The outer steel case measures 1448mm x 991mm x 508mm high, including the programmer housing and other hardware, but excluding the 470mm high legs. The shipping weight is about 183Kg.

The ten-sided oval firebrick firing chamber measures 1041mm x 572mm x 292mm high, and heats from the top and all the sides, with the fast-firing elements lying in grooves in the 76mm thick top and side bricks.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate drying, heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


As it has side elements, it can't accept a bead-anealing door. However, the two peep-holes can be replaced by two 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-windows.

There's also a slightly taller version, which Paragon named the Fusion Ovation 1013: it's 38mm taller inside. However this is a 9600W kiln, so it needs a 40A wired-in power supply.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control box respray: normally blue
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List an RS232 computer interface: factory fitted
List two 50mmx 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-windows: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.

The Paragon Fusion Ovation is a fully programmable professional kiln for general glass work, and ideal for commercial studios. It's large enough to hold four shelf layers, arranged as full shelves or half shelves.

THE FUSION OVATION RECOMMENDED SHELF KIT

Shelf Kits For The Fusion Ovation.

There's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two durable 533mm x 457mm x 15mm half-oval cordierite shelves, eight 12mm shelf posts, and 450gms of glass separator.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two durable 533mm x 457mm x 15mm half-oval shelves and eight posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want more kits. This kiln has room for three.


However, if you want to work on one continuous flat surface, there's an alternative recommended kit, not included in the price: one oval 965mm x 521mm x 38mm Corelite extruded shelf and six 12mm posts. It's diamond ground to be flat.

Using a Corelite shelf needs care. It might crack if it overheats in one place or if the heating rate is faster than 110°C per hour. Before buying this, research it.

RECOMMENDED READING
General Help

Kilns, Programmers, Kiln Furniture, Options, Upgrades, Firing, Kiln Logs, Accessories, Materials, Processes, And Tools.

The remaining sections are about digital programmers, options, upgrades, materials, and processes. Unless you're already successfully using a kiln, they're recommended reading.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, to learn more about how your kiln works, find the help link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

THE PARAGON SENTRY XPRESS 3-KEY DIGITAL PROGRAMMER

The Sentry Xpress Digital Controller.

The Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer allows you to set up several firing sequences, each one with up to eight heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a simple ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


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OPTIONS AND UPGRADES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln: Customised Hot Pink With A RH Door Hinge

Options And Upgrades.

Individual kilns are described on this this page. However, it's important to learn about options and upgrades as some have to be factory-fitted. The photo shows a Paragon SC2 customised for a PMC silver clay studio: hot pink, a right-hand door hinge, and a maximum temperature set to 925°C so that students couldn't accidentally melt their silver.


An option is cosmetic or practical, such as a black respray, a right-hand door hinge, a peephole-vent, a bead-annealing door, a door or lid viewing window, or an EU plug.

An upgrade extends the standard specifications, such as a higher maximum temperature, a 3-key to a 12-key programmer, an electric kiln vent, a gas injection control system, an auxilliary power output, and an RS232 or USB computer interface.

Not every option or upgrade applies to every kiln, so mail or call if you need help. However, if they're appropriate, they're listed in the on-line shop, so just add up the ones you want: but order them with your kiln as they're often difficult, expensive, or impossible, to implement afterwards. It might help if you make a few notes of your own as you read?


Kilns use regular single-phase 230V-240V mains so have 230V EU elements, not 120V US elements. The smaller kilns have UK 13A three-pin plugs: so they're ready to go. If you're not in the UK, use a plug adapter or cut off the UK plug and fit your own: it won't invalidate the guarantee. Alternatively, a special-order kiln can have a factory-fitted EU plug.

Most kilns can be re-engineered for 110V, 200V, 208V, or 220V, single phase or three phase, or 440V three phase. If you're interested, mail or call.


Although standard EU and US kilns have the same maximum temperature, set by the design and the programmer, some 1095°C firebrick kilns can be re-engineered to run at 1230°C, 1260°C, or 1290°C, making them versatile mixed-media kilns. However, to use 1290°C full-on hour after hour, choose an industrial or professional model.

Also, to maintain 1290°C, some upgraded kilns might need thicker firebricks, so they'll be slightly smaller inside: about 12mm on each side. Mail or call if you're interested, or need help deciding.

The UK factory-set maximum temperature is based on a reliable average voltage of 240V. If there's a regional, national, or temporary voltage drop, high-temperature kilns might take longer to reach their specified maximum or not reach it.


Some kilns are normally blue, but can be factory-painted berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, as they're made to order, they can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly the same as in the photo.

The door hinge is usually on the left. However, a right-hand hinge might be better if you're left-handed: unless the kiln will be in the left-hand corner of your studio or there's an obstacle that will make access difficult. Give this some thought.

Most of the medium-size top-opening kilns have a standard lift-up lid. Firebrick lids seem heavy to some people so, if you feel that a ceramic fibre lid, a hydraulic-assisted lid, or spring-assisted lid would be easier, mail or call.


If the kiln comes with a Sentry Xpress 3-Key ramp-hold programmer, you can upgrade to a Sentry Xpress 3-Key cone-fire ramp-hold programmer, usually preferred for ceramics. Cone-fire is implemented in the programmer's software and is very easy to use: just set a cone number and start the firing sequence.

Depending on the kiln, you can upgrade a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer to a Sentry 12-Key ten segment ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold, programmer, with advanced firing features and connection options. The 3-key has a 12-month guarantee and the 12-key has a 30-month guarantee.

A Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted RS232 interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the RS232 interface in the on-line shop.


Depending on the kiln, the 12-key programmer has a power-ratio feature: you can adjust the heat balance between the top and sides in 10% steps and control the heat distribution over larger pieces.

Kilns which only heat from the top, as opposed to the top and sides, don't have the power-ratio feature. However, the initial cost-saving has to be offset against fewer firing options.


With larger kilns, serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless grooves in the fibre: or, as a luxury upgrade, with the elements completely embedded in the fibre.


Most kilns come with a standard long-lasting electro-mechanical relay. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, you can upgrade to a mercury relay which has a lifetime of several million on-off cycles. The relay can switch 30A, so if you have a kiln that needs 50A, you'll need two relays.

Most kilns come with a standard K-type nickel-chromium thermocouple. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, especially at temperatures above 1100°C, you can upgrade to an S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple.


Some front-opening kilns are just too large and too heavy for a regular worktop, so Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high, with two shelves for your accessories. The luxury version, with castors, is 63mm taller. If you decide to buy on old wood table, the rigidity of the legs is vital otherwise it will collapse like a parallelogram.


Some bronze and copper clays, and some metals, need to be fired in activated charcoal granules in a stainless steel container. The SC2 and SC3, the Caldera-A, and the Xpress E9A. E10A, and 1193 can hold a one-litre container: most other kilns can hold a three-litre but check the internal size before you buy the container. It's important that the container doesn't touch the thermocouple.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, wear glare-resistant glasses which protect your eyes from IR and UV.


Paragon kilns, made in the US, have been re-engineered and comprehensively tested for the UK, the EU, and most other countries. They're CE Marked and comply with EU safety standards. They're guaranteed for a year, and Paragon has an international, informed, and supportive user-base, and spares and repair centres.

The EU digital programmer shows degrees Celsius, not degrees Fahrenheit as in the US. If you need to convert, this is how to do it. However, if you want to work in Fahrenheit, you can make a simple change to the programmer.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver, and you can watch on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

As with a lot of heavy consumer products made in the US but sold elsewhere, Paragon's guarantee covers replacement parts, not a return to the distributor or factory, and not any labour costs. However, as an example, replacing a programmer takes just a few minutes.

KILN FURNITURE: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT
A Paragon Shelf Kit

Kiln Furniture: Shelves And Posts.

Most kilns have a recommended furniture kit. Delivery companies have a low rate for parcels less than 30kg so, for smaller kilns weighing less than 30Kg, the kit is generally one shelf and four posts: included in the price because it fits in the box and doesn't add much to the shipping weight.

You get a professional, durable, cordierite shelf with four 12mm high posts. You don't get a soft, ceramic-fibre shelf, often described as free, that will gradually break up and need replacing.

Shelf kits usually include 25mm x 25mm x 12mm shelf posts, When flat, they're 12mm high: on their sides, they're 25mm. Other sizes, up to 150mm high, are available, so you can choose the shelf spacing that suits your kiln and your work.

The recommended kit is usually the simplest that works: not an expensive collection that I've put together for you. However, extra shelf kits allow you to stack your work, optimising your use of the firing chamber volume, the unit-cost of firing, and your time. And extra half-shelves or smaller shelves allow you to fire a mix of shorter and taller pieces.


For larger kilns weighing more than 30Kg, it's not included in the price because you'll probably want to choose your own mix of shelves, half-shelves, smaller shelves, and assorted-height posts.


One shelf should stay on the floor of the firing chamber all the time in case you accidentally spill or melt anything: solidified glass or metal is impossible to pick off without damaging the ceramic-fibre or firebrick.

Shelves are not meant to be an exact fit in the kiln. You need finger space all round and they mustn't scrape the kiln walls every time they're put in or taken out.

Although they look tough, most ceramics break if they're dropped, so it's a good idea to have spare shelves, especially if your business depends on your kiln or you're running courses.


During firing sequences with heating, holding, and cooling segments, the elements turn on and off repeatedly. In a small kiln, with little residual heat, the inevitable temperature changes can make glass crack as it expands and contracts. A thick heavy shelf stores heat and, because it's resting on posts, the air circulates, helping to even out the normal temperature fluctuations.


If you're buying your first kiln, you're probably interested in one material, such as silver clay, or one process, such as enamelling. However, after a few successes, and failures, most people want to try different materials, make larger pieces, experiment with combinations, fire more at a time, and soon become interested in something else: or everything else. Some start a business or run classes.

You might want a full shelf, two half-shelves, several mixed shelves, a set of shelf posts, a bead-mandrel holder, glass separator, hot gloves, kiln wash, a knife-making rack, pyrometric cones, a tile holder, or other accessories.

Shelves are heavy, so Kits ordered separately need a box and protective packing and attract an extra delivery charge. Outside the UK mainland, this might be expensive. So, if you think you'll need them, order them with your kiln, along with any other accessories, materials, parts, or tools.


For dichroics, enamelling, and glass fusing, put kiln paper on the shelf to stop the glass sticking: it's simpler and cleaner to use than glass separator. Bullseye Thinfire shelf paper, probably the most popular, ensures easy separation between your glass and the kiln shelf. One side feels slightly smoother than the other: that's the glass side.

Generally, glasswork needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf than between closely stacked shelves, although experienced glass artists often use several shelves succesfully.

Delicate pieces can be fired on a puffed-up ceramic-fibre cloth: on a shelf. Round pieces, that could roll to one side, can be fired on a hollowed-out ceramic-fibre block. However, if the kin has elements in the bottom as with the Mini-Kiln and Pro-7, a cloth or block will act as insulator and the kiln might overheat.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with ceramic-fibre blocks, ceramic cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot, or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV.


If your day-to-day work depends on your kiln and down-time will be disruptive or expensive, it's a good idea to have spares: extra shelves, a selection of posts, elements, a relay, and a thermocouple.

You can learn about ceramic blocks and cloths, charcoal, dust masks, glare-resistant glasses, glass separator, heat-resistant gloves, kiln vents, kiln wash, programmers, protective glasses, USB interfaces, shelf paper, tools, and other accessories, using the accessories link below the menu bar near the top of the front page. And they're all in the on-line shop.


Shelves are checked before despatch and are wrapped protectively. But they're not guaranteed and we cannot be responsible for any later damage.

FIRING CHARACTERISTICS

How Electric Kilns Work.

Generally, as soon as a programmable kiln starts its firing sequence, it begins to heat up at a rate set by the programmer. It can't heat up quicker than it would do with the elements full on.

The thermocouple tells the programmer the current internal temperature and, depending on the sequence you've chosen, the programmer turns the elements on or off to control the sequence segments: the heating rate, the target temperature, the hold time, and the cooling rate. It can't cool down quicker than it would do with the kiln turned off. When the sequence is complete, the kiln beeps, and the sequence stops.


For safety, the programmer doesn't switch the full mains voltage. Instead it drives a relay, an electro-mechanical switch. The programmer uses a low voltage to activate the switch which turns the high voltage elements on or off.


When the target temperature is reached, the programmer switches the elements off. However, residual heat in the firing chamber allows the internal temperature to overshoot the target temperature briefly before starting to fall back.

This overshoot is more evident at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and in small kilns rather than large kilns. For example: 300°C will probably overshoot to 330°C whereas 800°C will probably only overshoot to 805°C before starting to fall back.

During the hold-time, with the elements still off, the temperature starts to fall. When the programmer switches the elements back on, the firing chamber will initially absorb some of the new heat before the temperature recovers. The continual switching of the elements on and off causes the internal temperature to oscillate either side of the target temperature.

This is similar to central heating. If you set it for 21°C, it probably oscillates, quite slowly, around 20°C to 22°C: and you won't notice. The accuracy will depend on where the thermostat is sited, how quickly it responds, how accurate it is, how long it takes for the radiators to heat up, and if you have doors and windows open. The temperature will probably be slightly different in each room.

So, regardless of the thermocouple temperature, the actual temperature of your work will be slightly different, depending on its position on the kiln shelf, the vertical spacing of any stacked shelves, and its nearness to the elements, a lid, a door, a bead door, or a window. Learn to take it into account if you're working with temperature-critical materials or processes.


Remember that glass needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf at the bottom than between closely stacked shelves.


Kiln doors and lids are not meant to be a perfect fit otherwise, at high temperatures, there'd be no room for expansion and movement, and the door could stick and the ceramic-fibre or firebricks could crack.

All kilns smell a bit, and even produce whisps of smoke, during the first firings, just like a toaster or a fan heater. If you're worried about fumes, open a window.

Eventually, with normal use, kilns discolour slightly, inside and outside, and some firebricks might develop hairline cracks. Your kiln is a versatile, robust, red-hot tool: not an ornament.

KEEPING A KILN LOG

Keeping A Kiln Log.

Using your kiln successfully needs critical research and frequent tests, especially as things that work for your friends and teachers might not work in the same way for you. It's also very important to learn how to creatively use unexpected effects. So, keep a firing log:


Buy a durable notebook. Use a new page for every firing, and draw diagrams of the shelves, their vertical spacing, and the position of your work on the shelves. Along with your work, put a few scraps at different places on the shelves to learn how things change. Describe the material, the shape of your work, the firing cycle, and the end result. Add a few photos and sketches, and mark the page corners with coloured dots or symbols as a quick reminder of your success rating.

A kiln log is vital if you're experimenting with temperature-sensitive materials or working with coloured dichroic glasses, enamels, glazes, or china paints, and a skilled artist will use the kiln log to advantage to re-create effects. It'll be particularly useful if you have to repeat a commission, or you have a long holiday before returning to your studio.


Some Paragon kilns have a Sentry 12-key programmer which can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO METAL CLAYS
Silver Clay Acrylic Tools Clay Shapers Hand Tools

What Is A Metal Clay?.

Metal Clays are clay-like materials made of fine metal powders and water-soluble organic binders. Out of the packet they feel like modelling clay, so can be shaped using anything appropriate. If you don't like what you've made, you can roll it up and start again. Any scraps can be wrapped up and re-used, so there's almost no waste.

When you're happy with your work, it's dried so that the moisture can evaporate. At this stage it feels like a plaster, so you can still refine the shape: and even add more clay.

As it's fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid metal: real metal, not something that just looks like metal. The firing temperature isn't high enough to melt the metal otherwise your work would lose it's shape and liquify.


Although Art Clay and PMC silver clays were first to market, there's now an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.

I sometimes get asked if there's a platinum metal clay: there is, but it's an industrial product. Platinum melts at 1772°C, so a platimum clay would probably need to fire at around 1600°C: beyond the maximum temperature of conventional kilns.


All our tools have been chosen for their engineering excellence and clean functionality, to help you manage a creative and efficient work environment. And you'll enjoy using good tools rather than continually improvising. To learn more, use the accessories:tools link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

SILVER CLAY
Art Clay Silver Pendant

Aida Art Clay Silver And Mitsubishi PMC Silver Clay.

There are two popular makes of silver clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine silver powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Silver and PMC Silver, sometimes just called silver clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 999 silver: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

BRONZE CLAY
Bronze-Copper Lobster Bangle By Gordon Uyehara

Bronze Clay And BronzClay.

There are three popular makes of bronze clay: Bronze Clay made by ClayMania, BronzClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Bronze ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine bronze powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

Clay Mania Bronze Clay and MetalAdventures BronzClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural bronze colour, and charcoal made from coal produces a colourful range of patinas.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid bronze, an alloy of 89% copper and 11% tin: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Bronze, which is almost certainly Prometheus Bronze Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why, in November 2014, ProBronze is £17.75 for 100gm and Creative Bronze is £23.95: both including postage.


Also, in November 2014, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 12 times more than Prometheus Bronze Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, bronze is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

COPPER CLAY
Copper Earring By Zina Kuscynska Richterova

Copper Clay And CopprClay.

There are four popular makes of copper clay: Art Clay Copper made by Aida Chemical Industries, Copper Clay made by ClayMania, CopprClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Copper ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine copper powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Clay Mania Copper Clay and MetalAdventures CopprClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural copper colour.

Art Clay Copper is easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. In most kilns, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time: so you might want more than one.

Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid copper: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Copper, which is almost certainly Prometheus Copper Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why, in November 2014, ProCopper is £17.75 for 100gm and Creative Bronze is £23.95: both including postage.


Also, in November 2014, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 12 times more than Prometheus Copper Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, copper is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

GOLD CLAY
Gold Clay Pendant By Claudia S Atkins

Aida Art Clay Gold And Mitsubishi PMC Gold Clay.

There are two popular makes of gold clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine gold powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Gold and PMC Gold, sometimes just called gold clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 22 carat gold: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, glass clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS
Obsidian

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated. moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons, and the pitiful ritual of circumcision.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace

Annealing.

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long process, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass

Dichroic Glass.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass

Fire Polishing.

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is typically used to round the edges of glass between fusing and slumping.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads

Lampwork And Beads.

Very briefly, lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre

Pâte De Verre.

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass

Tack Fusing.

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers

Vitrigraph.

Vitrigraph work is usually done with a Caldera A kiln because the bottom can be removed and the kiln body lifted up well away from the floor to allow moulten glass to fall through a small hole in a crucible and form long stringers.

WARM GLASS

Warm Glass.

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. The term warm glass is often replaced by kiln forming.

ELECTRIC KILNS

Electric Kilns: A Cherry Heaven Internet Resource.

This internet resource is provided by Cherry Heaven, a UK/EU distributor, retail shop, and support centre for kilns, parts, accessories, tools, and tumblers. It's not a bead, ceramics, glass, or metal-clay home-business, selling to a market niche.

As it's an on-line resource, there isn't a paper catalogue or a price list. However, you can mail or call a technician about kilns, power supplies, public area safety, a special project, business ideas, diagnostics, repairs, or reselling opportunities.


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